From simple batteries to the PEM fuel cell

If one sticks a copper plate and a zinc plate side by side into a lemon and connects both metal plates with a cable, this "lemon battery" can be used to operate a small  motor. Therefore, the metals which have been placed in the lemon must produce a voltage. In a closed circuit that causes electric current flow. But, where does this electrical energy come from?

In this course, students will examine the function of different batteries, rechargeable galvanic cells (“accumulator”), especially of fuel-cells, and they will test the efficiency of different fuel-cell types.


  • Electrochemical series of metals
  • Standard hydrogen electrode
  • DANIELL-element 
  • Concentration element
  • Zinc-Bromine or Zinc-Iodine accumulator
  • Fuel cells


Duration: 1 day

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